Home » electronics » I glimpse the fullness of it now

I glimpse the fullness of it now

Well, I have started construction of this monster… and a monster it indeed is. I am reminded of the joke in The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy about the terrible error in scale which caused an entire battle-fleet to be eaten by a small dog. I have made such an error myself, a huge error in scale on several levels.

First of all, I made a bit of a mistake with the scale of the whole project. This project is colossal. I started to get a sense of this while I was drawing the schematics, but I really had no idea until I noticed it was taking me a couple of minutes to solder a single wire and then decided to estimate how many wires I was going to need. Well, although I haven’t finished numbering the chips on the schematics, I think there’s going to be around 200 chips. Average number of pins per chip… about 18. So that makes about 3600 solder joints just for the chip pins and there are many other things to consider besides those. Working at one joint every 3 minutes for 4 hours a day, that will take about 45 days just for the soldering. Not to mention all the other things that need doing. In reality, I can at least double that, so about 3 months soldering time. Some time next May I think I will laugh at that estimate. I had originally decided to use PCBs since that would be the easiest way to build it. Simply solder the parts onto the board and you’re done. No need for masses and masses of individual wire connections. I did a test for one register and it came to over $100 for a small 5″ board. Even using a cheap Chinese PCB house, the large boards I need would probably cost an absolute fortune which is why I went with prototyping boards. I just couldn’t justify spending that kind of money on the boards alone.

So, I’m now locked into using prototyping boards and the second error I made was how much space this stuff takes up. I had done a number of layout tests and was able to pack a lot of chips into a small space. My boards are 10.6″ square and I can sensibly fit about 80 or 90 chips on a board (or non-sensibly, about 150). But even being sensible about it, I’m finding I’m needing a lot more space between the chips than I have allowed for, due to the thickness of the wires and the fact that a lot of signals are bussed and therefore need 16 wires. The 24 AWG wire I’m using has quite thick insulation which means you can only fit about 12 wires side-by-side in an inch. With my planned distance of only about ½ an inch between the chips, there simply isn’t enough room.

I started construction on the memory board since that is the simplest of the four main boards. This board has some trivial address decoding, a real time clock, I/O ports, DIP switches and some rows of RAM and ROM chips. By starting with this, I figured I could get something testable pretty quickly. In reality, it took 2½ weeks before I was able to test anything at all. To test one board without relying on another board, one needs a method of testing. I decided to build a ‘throw-away’ test board (which turned out quite nice so I won’t be throwing it away). This board is basically a fake control board to fool the memory board into thinking it’s being controlled by a CPU. This board has 6 DIP switches on it (24 for the address bus, 16 for the data bus and 8 for other control signals). It also has a few bus drivers and so on to make sure I can get it off the data bus when it’s telling a memory unit to be on the data bus. It took me a couple of weeks to get the parts and build this board. This was the first inkling I had that I had underestimated the scale of the project and the scale of the required space. Here’s a picture of the finished test board.

Test Board

Test Board

It looks quite tidy until you turn it over.

Test Board - back

Test Board – back

Clearly the wires are taking up far too much space and I confirmed that when I started soldering the memory board itself. There is simply no way with my planned layout that I will be able to fit all the wires in such that I can actually still get to the board to solder it. I’ve already run into problems with wires getting in the way of chip pins and I haven’t even started on anything that uses the whole data bus. Looking around online for how other people do this kind of thing, the solution seems to be to use thinner wire. I have ordered a couple of reels of ‘magnet’ wire, the kind that is used for making coils in motors and power supplies. This wire is very thin (mine will be 28 and 32 AWG) and you can solder through the insulation which burns away. I’m planning to switch to this wire for all the busses and possibly more. I’ll continue to use my current thicker wire for power and ground lines and for other odd connections here and there.

Thick wire problem

Thick wire problem

In other news, I have finished drawing all the schematics including the ALU. It was a bit tricky, especially the shifter section. It’s pretty easy to make a shifter that shifts by a single bit, but my design calls for the ability to shift by 1 to 8 bits instantly. I used a 1-of-8 selector (mux) to choose the signals based on the shift amount and then had to wrap my head around how to choose the single-bit signals to route to each of the eight inputs on each of the 16 chips. I suddenly realized that it should be possible to make a generalized shifter that shifts one way and then re-use it to shift the other way by rearranging the signals as they go in and out of it. A few hours and a lot of brain twisting later, I had drawn the schematic and found that I had saved myself ten chips. That doesn’t save any money because I had already bought the chips in bulk, but it saves on a couple of hundred solder joints that I won’t have to do. I verified this optimization by knocking it up in Logisim and found that it does indeed work. I went to bed that night feeling ever so clever, like I had invented something. But later I found, as I usually do, that this technique is pretty much standard for shifters and I had simply reinvented the wheel.

ALU - Shifter

ALU – Shifter

Finally, I had a very hard time deciding how to connect the four main boards together. The connections require rather a lot of wires. I had already decided to use ribbon cables because I had found a supplier that would make the cables to my requested size at a very reasonable cost. But the layout had me stumped for weeks, I just couldn’t seem to nail it down. Eventually, with the help of Google Drawings, I made the final plan. As you can see, this is going to need a lot of soldering and a lot of wiring.

Ribbon cables

Ribbon cables

There’s these two things my mum used to say all the time when I was a kid that seem appropriate now. “Patience is a virtue.” and “Little by little a bird builds his nest.”

I can do this. There is no ‘try’.

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2 thoughts on “I glimpse the fullness of it now

  1. Great project! I also have a project of homemade CPU and computer (with keyboard and VGA output), but made with an FPGA, which is much easier. It’s also 16bits and RISC.

    I think that you should really consider using the wrapping technique for your boards. It’s a great technique. The density of wires can be much higher than with soldering. You can wrap a pin even if this pin has already lots of wires arround. Soldering is quite dangerous in comparison, because you can easilly burn the insulation of wires passing across, and make short-cuts.
    You can easilly wrap several wires on the same pin : up to 4 wires on 1 pin.
    You can easilly make modifications on your desing in case of a mistake : just unwrap the wires! I’ts quite impossible with soldering : try to desolder a pin that is below a mess of wires…

    F4HDK – french hobbyist

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  2. Thanks for your input. I’d be interested to see your project. Is there a web page I can look at? You’re right about the soldering, it is a bit of a nightmare. But I’ve already invested too much to change it now. I’m going to press on using this thin wire I ordered. It’s working out very well. With careful planning I will be able to make the rat’s nest much more manageable. A future post will have some pictures.

    Like

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